ត្រ័យសរណគមន៍ គឺជាការរំឮកនូវគុណកែវទាំងបី គឺ ព្រះពុទ្ធ ព្រះធម៌ និង ព្រះសង្ឃ។ ជាទូទៅគេរំឮកព្រះត្រ័យសរណគមន៍បីដង គឺទី១ ទី២ និង ទី៣ ការសូត្រ មានដូចតទៅ៖ តតិយម្បិ សង្ឃំ សរណំ គច្ឆាមិ សង្ឃំ សរណំ គច្ឆាមិ ធម្មំ សរណំ គច្ឆាមិ ពុទ្ធំ សរណំ គច្ឆាមិ តតិយម្បិ ធម្មំ សរណំ គច្ឆាមិ ទុតិយម្បិ ពុទ្ធំ សរណំ គច្ឆាមិ ទុតិយម្បិ ធម្មំ សរណំ គច្ឆាមិ ទុតិយម្បិ សង្ឃំ សរណំ គច្ឆាមិ តតិយម្បិ ពុទ្ធំ សរណំ គច្ឆាមិ ប្រែថាៈ ខ្ញុំព្រះករុណាសូមដល់នូវព្រះពុទ្ធ ព្រះធម៌ ព្រះសង្ឃជាទីពឹង ទីរឮក នៃខ្ញុំព្រះករុណា គម្រប់ ២ដងផង ៣ដងផង
, សេចក្ដីហាមប្រាម, បម្រាម, សេចក្ដីដែលគេតែងតាំង, រៀបចំ; ពាក្យដែលគេកំណត់ហៅ: មានបញ្ញត្តិ, ធ្វើខុសនឹងបញ្ញត្តិ ។ ពាក្យនេះច្រើនប្រើជាបទសមាស គឺរៀងឲ្យជាខាងចុងសព្ទឯទៀត ដូចជា ពុទ្ធបញ្ញត្តិ, រាជបញ្ញត្តិ, បទេសបញ្ញត្តិ, បឋមបញ្ញត្តិ, នាមបញ្ញត្តិ, វោហារបញ្ញត្តិ ជាដើម ។ ព. ផ្ទ. អនុញ្ញាត ។
បាលី គឺជាភាសាឥណ្ឌូ-អារ្យមជ្ឈិមមួយ នៃឧបទ្វីបឥណ្ឌា ។ បាលីជាភាសាបុរាណមួយបែប ដែលមនុស្សជំនាន់ដើមនិយាយទាក់ទងគ្នា ។ មនុស្សខ្លះនិយមហៅភាសាបាលីថាជាភាសារបស់ព្រះពុទ្ធ។ សព្វថ្ងៃ គេឃើញមានភាសានេះនៅក្នុងក្បួនច្បាប់មួយចំនួនធំ ដូចជាក្នុងព្រះពុទ្ធវចនៈ ជាដើម និង មានពុទ្ធបរិស័ទខាងនិកាយថេរវាទយកទៅប្រើតាមប្រទេសរៀងខ្លួន ។
1.1. ដើមកំណើត និង ការប្រែក្លាយ និរុត្តិសាស្ត្រនៃឈ្មោះ
ពាក្យថា បាលី បានសេចក្តីថា ជួរ ឬដងព្រៃ,ស្ពាន, របៀប, ភាសាដ៏មានរបៀបមួយ ។ This name for the language seems to have its origins in commentarial traditions, wherein the Pali in the sense of the line of original text quoted was distinguished from the commentary or vernacular translation that followed it in the manuscript. As such, the name of the language has caused some debate among scholars of all ages; the spelling of the name also varies, being found with both long "ā" "l" sound, as in the ISO 15919/ALA-LC rendering, Pāli. To this day, there is no single, standard spelling of the term; all four spellings can be found in textbooks. R.C. Childers translates the word as "series" and states that the language "bears the epithet in consequence of the perfection of its grammatical structure".
1.2. ដើមកំណើត និង ការប្រែក្លាយ ចំណាត់ថ្នាក់
Pali is a literary language of the Prakrit language family. When the canonical texts were written down in Sri Lanka in the first century BCE, Pali stood close to a living language; this is not the case for the commentaries. Despite excellent scholarship on this problem, there is persistent confusion as to the relation of Pāli to the vernacular spoken in the ancient kingdom of Magadha, which was located around modern-day Bihār.
Pali as a Middle Indo-Aryan language is different from Sanskrit not so much with regard to the time of its origin as to its dialectal base, since a number of its morphological and lexical features betray the fact that it is not a direct continuation of Rigvedic Vedic Sanskrit; rather it descends from a dialect or a number of dialects that was, despite many similarities, different from Rigvedic.
1.3. ដើមកំណើត និង ការប្រែក្លាយ នៅក្នុងពុទ្ធសាសនាថេរវាទ
នៅក្នុងប្រភពនៃ ថេរវាទ ត្រូវបានស្គាល់ភាសាបាលីជាភាសា មគធៈ Magadha. ភាសានេះត្រូវបានសរសេរនៅក្នុងព្រះត្រៃបិដក, អដ្ឋកថា ជាដើម, ហើយនឹងត្រូវបានព្យាយាមប្រើប្រាស់ដោយពុទ្ធសាសនិកជនជាច្រើន ដើម្បីងាយស្រួលក្នុងការប្រាស្រ័យទាក់ទងនឹងសាសន៍ដទៃដែលកាន់ព្រះពុទ្ធសាសនាដូចគ្នា ។ ព្រះពុទ្ធបង្រៀន, ប្រទានឱវាទ ដល់ជនទាំងឡាយជាភាសាមគធៈ ប៉ុន្តែទីស្ថានសំខាន់ៗ ៤ កន្លែងរបស់ព្រះអង្គ ស្ថិតនៅក្រៅតំបន់នេះទាំងអស់ ។ វាប្រហែលជាភាសាបាលីជាគ្រាមភាសាដែលធ្វើអោយមានការងាយស្រួលក្នុងការពន្យល់ និង ងាយយល់ពីសំណាក់ប្រជាជន ឥណ្ឌូអារ្យមជ្ឈិម ។ គេពុំទាន់ឃើញមានភស្តុតាងណាមួយដែលអាចបញ្ជាក់ពីភាសាដទៃរបស់ពួក ឥណ្ឌូអារ្យមជ្ឈិម ដែលប្រសើរជាងភាសាបាលីទេ ។ គេឃើញមានភាសាបាលីនៅក្នុងសិលាចារឹកជាច្រើនរបស់ព្រះបាទអសោកនៅ Girnar ផ្នែកខាងលិចប្រទេសឥណ្ឌា, និង c នៅខាងកើត ។ Similarities to the Western inscription may be misleading, because the inscription suggests that the Ashokan scribe may not have translated the material he omreceived from មគធៈ into the vernacular of the people there. Whatever the relationship of the Buddhas speech to Pali, the Canon was eventually transcribed and preserved entirely in it, while the commentarial tradition that accompanied it according to the information provided by ព្រះពុទ្ធឃោសៈ was translated into olkភាសាសីហឡៈ and preserved local languages for several generations.
In Sri Lanka, Pali is thought to have entered into a period of decline ending around the 4th or 5th century, but ultimately survived. The work of Buddhaghosa was largely responsible for its reemergence as an important scholarly language in Buddhist thought. The Visuddhimagga and the other commentaries that Buddhaghosa compiled codified and condensed the Sinhalese commentarial tradition that had been preserved and expanded in Sri Lanka since the 3rd century BCE.
1.4. ដើមកំណើត និង ការប្រែក្លាយ ទិដ្ឋភាពនៅដើមបស្ចឹម
T.W. Rhys Davids in his book Buddhist India, and Wilhelm Geiger in his book Pali Literature and Language, suggested that Pali may have originated as a form of lingua franca or common language of culture among people who used differing dialects in North India, used at the time of the Buddha and employed by him. Another scholar states that at that time it was "a refined and elegant vernacular of all Aryan-speaking people." Modern scholarship has not arrived at a consensus on the issue; there are a variety of conflicting theories with supporters and detractors. After the death of the Buddha, Pali may have evolved among Buddhists out of the language of the Buddha as a new artificial language. R.C. Childers, who held to the theory that Pali was Old Magadhi, wrote: "Had Gautama never preached, it is unlikely that Magadhese would have been distinguished from the many other vernaculars of Hindustan, except perhaps by an inherent grace and strength which make it a sort of Tuscan among the Prakrits."
According to K.R. Norman, it is likely that the viharas in North India had separate collections of material, preserved in the local dialect. In the early period it is likely that no degree of translation was necessary in communicating this material to other areas. Around the time of Ashoka there had been more linguistic divergence, and an attempt was made to assemble all the material. It is possible that a language quite close to the Pali of the canon emerged as a result of this process as a compromise of the various dialects in which the earliest material had been preserved, and this language functioned as a lingua franca among Eastern Buddhists in India from then on. Following this period, the language underwent a small degree of Sanskritisation.
1.5. ដើមកំណើត និង ការប្រែក្លាយ Modern scholarship
Bhikkhu Bodhi, summarizing the current state of scholarship, states that the language is "closely related to the language that the Buddha himself spoke." He goes on to write:
According to A.K. Warder, the Pali language is a Prakrit language used in a region of western India. Warder associates Pali with the Indian realm janapada of Avanti, where the Sthavira sect was centered. Following the initial split in the Buddhist community, the Sthavira branch of Buddhism became influential in western and southern India, while the Mahāsāṃghika branch became influential in central and eastern India. Akira Hirakawa and Paul Groner also associate Pali with west India and the Sthavira sect, citing inscriptions at Girnar in Gujarat, India, which are linguistically closest to the Pali language.
1.6. ដើមកំណើត និង ការប្រែក្លាយ បច្ចុប្បន្នភាពនៃភាសាបាលី
បច្ចុប្បន្ននេះ មុខវិជ្ជាភាសាបាលីត្រូវបានបញ្ចូលក្នុងផ្នែកពុទ្ធសាសនា ដើម្បីអោយពុទ្ធសាសនិកជនមានភាពងាយស្រូលក្នុងការអានគម្ពីរ និងសូត្រនមស្សការជាប្រចាំរាល់ថ្ងៃ។ ក្រៅពីខាងផ្នែកសាសនា, អក្សរសាស្ត្រ កាលប្បវត្តិជាភាសាបាលី, ឯកសារខាងវិជ្ជាពេទ្យ និងអក្សរចារឹកមួយចំនួន គឺជាប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រយ៉ាងសំខាន់ផងដែរ ។ មជ្ឈមណ្ឌលរៀនភាសាបាលីដែលគួរអោយកត់សំគាល់ក្នុងពេលបច្ចុប្បន្ននេះ គឺមាននៅតែក្នុងពុទ្ធសាសនាថេរវាទ នៅប្រទេសអាស៊ីអាគ្នេយ៍មានដូចជា: ភូមា, ស្រីលង្កា, ថៃ, ឡាវ, និង កម្ពុជា។ ចាប់តាំងពីសតវត្យទី១៩, various societies for the revival of Pali studies in India have promoted awareness of the language and its literature, perhaps most notably the Maha Bodhi Society founded by Anagarika Dhammapala.
In Europe, the Pali Text Society has been a major force in promoting the study of Pali by Western scholars since its founding in 1881. Based in the United Kingdom, the society publishes romanized Pali editions, along with many English translations of these sources. In 1869, the first Pali Dictionary was published using the research of Robert Caesar Childers, one of the founding members of the Pali Text Society. It was the first Pali translated text in English and was published in 1872. Childerss dictionary later received the Volney Prize in 1876.
The Pali Text Society was in part founded to compensate for the very low level of funds allocated to Indology in late 19th-century England and the rest of the UK; incongruously, the citizens of the UK were not nearly so robust in Sanskrit and Prakrit language studies as Germany, Russia, and even Denmark. Without the inspiration of colonial holdings such as the former British occupation of Sri Lanka and Burma, institutions such as the Danish Royal Library have built up major collections of Pali manuscripts, and major traditions of Pali studies.
Virtually every word in Pāḷi has cognates in the other Prakritic Middle Indo-Aryan languages, e.g., the Jain Prakrits. The relationship to earlier Sanskrit e.g., Vedic language is less direct and more complicated. Historically, influence between Pali and Sanskrit has been felt in both directions. The Pali languages resemblance to Sanskrit is often exaggerated by comparing it to later Sanskrit compositions– which were written centuries after Sanskrit ceased to be a living language, and are influenced by developments in Middle Indic, including the direct borrowing of a portion of the Middle Indic lexicon; whereas, a good deal of later Pali technical terminology has been borrowed from the vocabulary of equivalent disciplines in Sanskrit, either directly or with certain phonological adaptations.
Post-canonical Pali also possesses a few loan-words from local languages where Pali was used e.g. Sri Lankans adding Sinhalese words to Pali. These usages differentiate the Pali found in the Suttapiṭaka from later compositions such as the Pali commentaries on the canon and folklore e.g., the stories of the Jātaka commentaries, and comparative study and dating of texts on the basis of such loan-words is now a specialized field unto itself.
Pali was not exclusively used to convey the teachings of the Buddha, as can be deduced from the existence of a number of secular texts, such as books of medical science/instruction, in Pali. However, scholarly interest in the language has been focused upon religious and philosophical literature, because of the unique window it opens on one phase in the development of Buddhism.
3. Emic views of Pali
Although Sanskrit was said in the Brahmanical tradition to be the unchanging language spoken by the gods, in which each word had an inherent significance, this view of language was not shared in the early Buddhist tradition, in which words were only conventional and mutable signs. Neither the Buddha nor his early followers shared the Brahmins reverence for the Vedic language or its sacred texts. This view of language naturally extended to Pali, and may have contributed to its usage as an approximation or standardization of local Middle Indic dialects in place of Sanskrit. However, by the time of the compilation of the Pali commentaries 4th or 5th century, Pali was regarded as the natural language, the root language of all beings.
Comparable to Ancient Egyptian, Latin or Hebrew in the mystic traditions of the West, Pali recitations were often thought to have a supernatural power, and in the early strata of Buddhist literature we can already see Pali dhāraṇī s used as charms, e.g. against the bite of snakes. Many people in Theravada cultures still believe that taking a vow in Pali has a special significance, and, as one example of the supernatural power assigned to chanting in the language, the recitation of the vows of Aṅgulimāla are believed to alleviate the pain of childbirth in Sri Lanka. In Thailand, the chanting of a portion of the Abhidhammapiṭaka is believed to be beneficial to the recently departed, and this ceremony routinely occupies as much as seven working days. Interestingly, there is nothing in the latter text that relates to this subject, and the origins of the custom are unclear.
With regard to its phonology, R.C. Childers compared Pali to Italian: "Like Italian, Pali is at once flowing and sonorous: it is a characteristic of both languages that nearly every word ends in a vowel, and that all harsh conjunctions are softened down by assimilation, elision, or crasis, while on the other hand both lend themselves easily to the expression of sublime and vigorous thought."
4.1. សូរវិទ្យា ស្រៈ
Long and short vowels are only contrastive in open syllables; in closed syllables, all vowels are always short. Short and long e and o are in complementary distribution: the short variants occur only in closed syllables, the long variants occur only in open syllables. Short and long e and o are therefore not distinct phonemes.
A sound called anusvāra Skt.; Pali: nigghahita, represented by the letter ṁ ISO 15919 or ṃ ALA-LC in romanization, and by a raised dot in most traditional alphabets, originally marked the fact that the preceding vowel was nasalized. That is, aṁ, iṁ and uṁ represented. However pronounced, ṁ never follows a long vowel; ā, ī and ū are converted to the corresponding short vowels when ṁ is added to a stem ending in a long vowel, e.g. kathā + ṁ becomes kathaṁ, not *kathāṁ, devī + ṁ becomes deviṁ, not * devīṁ.
4.2. សូរវិទ្យា ព្យញ្ជនៈ
The table below lists the consonants of Pali. In bold is the transliteration of the letter in traditional romanization, and in square brackets its pronunciation transcribed in the IPA.
Of the sounds listed above only the three consonants in parentheses, ṅ, ḷ, and ḷh, are not distinct phonemes in Pali: ṅ only occurs before velar stops and ḷ, and ḷh are allophones of single ḍ, and ḍh between vowels.
ស្ទើរតែគ្រប់ពាក្យទាំងអស់ក្នុងភាសាបាលីត្រូវបានផ្លាស់ប្តូរទំរង់ដើម សម្រាប់ប្រើក្នុងការតភ្ជាប់ពាក្យដើម្បីអោយមានន័យអាចស្តាប់បាន។ គេអាចយល់ន័យនៅក្នុងប្រយោគនីមួយៗដោយការសំគាល់លើពាក្យដែលត្រូវបានបំលែងទាំងនោះ ឧទាហរណ៍ ដូចជា គេអាចស្គាល់ប្រធាន ឬស្គាល់កាល តាមរយៈការបំបែកកិរិយាសព្ទក្នុងប្រយោគនោះ ជាដើម។
5.1. រូបសព្ទ នាមសព្ទ
ភេទសម្រាប់សំគាល់នាមសព្ទនៅក្នុងវេយ្យាករណ៍បាលី មានបីគឺ បុំលិង្គ ភេទប្រុស, ឥត្ថីលិង្គ ភេទស្រី, នបុំសកលិង្គ ភេទខ្ទើយ ឬភេទមិនប្រុសមិនស្រី។ នាមនេះត្រូវបានបែងចែងជាពីរ គឺ ឯកវចនៈ និងពហុវចនៈ។ ម្យ៉ាងទៀត នៅពេលប្រើជាប្រយោគមួយៗ នាមសព្ទនេះត្រូវបានបំបែកដើម្បីបញ្ជាក់ន័យអោយប្រធាន ឬកម្មបទ ដើម្បីអោយមានសេចក្តីស្តាប់បាន ដែលគេហៅថាវិភត្តិ។ វិភត្តិនេះត្រូវបានចែកជា៨ប្រភេទគឺ បឋមាប្រធាន, ទុតិយាកម្មបទ,តតិយាអកម្ម,ធ្នាក់, ចតុត្ថីកម្មបទប្រយោល, បញ្ចមីទំរង់បែងចែក, ឆដ្ឋីបញ្ជាក់កម្មសិទ្ធ, សត្តមីអាយតនិបាត, អាលបនសម្ពោធន។
5.2. រូបសព្ទ អ-ការន្ត
អ-ការន្ត គឺជាស្រៈទីបំផុតមួយនៃនាមសព្ទដែលប្រព្រឹត្តទៅក្នុងបុំលិង្គ ភេទប្រុស និង នបុំសកលិង្គ ភេទខ្ទើយ។ គេសំគាល់"អ-ការន្ត" បានដោយពាក្យមាន"អ" ៈនៅខាងចុង មានដូចជា បុរិសបុ.រិ.សៈ, លោកលោកៈ, ធម្មធម្មៈជាដើម។ នាមសព្ទដែលជាភេទប្រុស និងភេទខ្ទើយនេះ មានលក្ខណៈខុសគ្នាតែនៅក្នុងសព្វនាម, អាលបនៈ, និងកម្មបទប៉ុណ្ណោះ។
5.3. រូបសព្ទ ឥ-ការន្ត និង ឧ-ការន្ត
ឥ-ការន្ត និង ឧ-ការន្ត ភាគច្រើនជាបុំលិង្គភេទប្រុស ឬ នបុំសកលិង្គភេទមិនប្រុស មិនស្រី។ នាមដែលបំបែកក្នុងទំរង់ ភេទ ទាំងពីរនេះខុសគ្នាតែសព្វនាម និងកម្មបទ។ ចំណែកឯអាលបនៈដូចគ្នាទៅនឹងសព្វនាម។
ខាងក្រោមនេះជាគាថាដកស្រង់ពី គាថាធម្មបទ:មនោបុព្វង្គមា ធម្មា, មនោសេដ្ឋា មនោមយា; មនសា ចេ បទុដ្ឋេន, ភាសតិ វា ករោតិ វា, តតោ នំ ទុក្ខមន្វេតិ, ចក្កំវ វហតោ បទំ។
ការប្រែពាក្យ:មនោ = ចិត្ត, បុព្វ=មុន, គមា=ទៅ, ធម្មា=ធម៌; សេដ្ឋ= ប្រសើរបំផុត, មយា=ធ្វើសម្រេច; មនសា=ចិត្ត, ចេ= បើ, បទុដ្ឋេន=គឺទោសប្រទូស្ត, ភាសតិ=និយាយ, វា=ក្តី, ករោតិ=ធ្វើ; តតោ នំ=ព្រោះអំពើនោះ, ទុក្ខមន្វេតិ= ទុក្ខតាម, ចក្ក=កង់កាំ, វហតោ=នាំទៅ, បទ=ស្នាមជើង
ប្រែថា:មនោបុព្វង្គមា ធម្មា, មនោសេដ្ឋា មនោមយា ; ធម៌ទាំងឡាយមានចិត្តជាធំ, មានចិត្តប្រសើរបំផុត សម្រេចមកពីចិត្ត មនសា ចេ បទុដ្ឋេន, ភាសតិ វា ករោតិ វា, បើបុគ្គលមានចិត្តត្រូវទោសប្រទូស្តរ៉ាយហើយ, ទោះបីនិយាយក្តី ធ្វើក្តី ក៏អាក្រក់ដែរ តតោ នំ ទុក្ខមន្វេតិ, ចក្កំវ វហតោ បទំ. ព្រោះអំពើអាក្រក់នោះឯង, សេចក្តីទុក្ខរមែងដេញជាប់តាមក្រោយបុគ្គលនោះដូចកង់រទេះវិលតាមស្នាមជើងគោដែលអូសនឹមរទេះនោះ។
7. បាលី និងអឌ្ឍមគធី
The most archaic of the Middle Indo-Aryan languages are the inscriptional Aśokan Prakrit on the one hand and បាលី and អឌ្ឍមគធី on the other, both literary languages.
The Indo-Aryan languages are commonly assigned to three major groups - Old, Middle and New Indo-Aryan -, a linguistic and not strictly chronological classification as the MIA languages are not younger than Classical Sanskrit. And a number of their morphophonological and lexical features betray the fact that they are not direct continuations of Ṛgvedic Sanskrit, the main base of Classical Sanskrit; rather they descend from dialects which, despite many similarities, were different from Ṛgvedic and in some regards even more archaic.
MIA languages, though individually distinct, share features of phonology and morphology which characterize them as parallel descendants of Old Indo-Aryan. Various sound changes are typical of the MIA phonology:
1 The vocalic liquids ṛ and ḷ are replaced by a, i or u; 2 the diphthongs ai and au are monophthongized to e and o; 3 long vowels before two or more consonants are shortened; 4 the three sibilants of OIA are reduced to one, either ś or s; 5 the often complex consonant clusters of OIA are reduced to more readily pronounceable forms, either by assimilation or by splitting; 6 single intervocalic stops are progressively weakened; 7 dentals are palatalized by a following -y-; 8 all final consonants except -ṃ are dropped unless they are retained in sandhi junctions.
The most conspicuous features of the morphological system of these languages are: loss of the dual; thematicization of consonantal stems; merger of the f. i-/u- and ī-/ū- in one ī-/ū- inflexion, elimination of the dative, whose functions are taken over by the genitive, simultaneous use of different case-endings in one paradigm; employment of mahyaṃ and tubhyaṃ as genitives and me and te as instrumentals; gradual disappearance of the middle voice; coexistence of historical and new verbal forms based on the present stem; and use of active endings for the passive. In the vocabulary, the MIA languages are mostly dependent on Old Indo-Aryan, with addition of a few so-called deśī words of often uncertain origin.
8. បាលី និងសំស្រ្កឹត
Although Pali cannot be considered a direct descendant of either Classical Sanskrit or of the older Vedic dialect, the languages are obviously very closely related and the common characteristics of Pali and Sanskrit were always easily recognized by those in India who were familiar with both. Indeed, a very large proportion of Pali and Sanskrit word-stems are identical in form, differing only in details of inflection.
The connections were sufficiently well-known that technical terms from Sanskrit were easily converted into Pali by a set of conventional phonological transformations. These transformations mimicked a subset of the phonological developments that had occurred in Proto-Pali. Because of the prevalence of these transformations, it is not always possible to tell whether a given Pali word is a part of the old Prakrit lexicon, or a transformed borrowing from Sanskrit. The existence of a Sanskrit word regularly corresponding to a Pali word is not always secure evidence of the Pali etymology, since, in some cases, artificial Sanskrit words were created by back-formation from Prakrit words.
The following phonological processes are not intended as an exhaustive description of the historical changes which produced Pali from its Old Indic ancestor, but rather are a summary of the most common phonological equations between Sanskrit and Pali, with no claim to completeness.
8.1. បាលី និងសំស្រ្កឹត ស្រៈ និង ស្រៈផ្សំ
- Sanskrit ai and au always monophthongize to Pali e and o, respectively
- Sanskrit aya and ava likewise often reduce to Pali e and o
- Sanskrit avi becomes Pali e i.e. avi → ai → e
- Sanskrit ṛ appears in Pali as a, i or u, often agreeing with the vowel in the following syllable. ṛ also sometimes becomes u after labial consonants.
- Sanskrit long vowels are shortened before a sequence of two following consonants.
8.2. បាលី និងសំស្រ្កឹត បម្រែបម្រួលសម្លេង
- The Sanskrit sibilants ś, ṣ, and s merge together as Pali s
- The Sanskrit stops ḍ and ḍh become ḷ and ḷh between vowels as in Vedic
8.3. បាលី និងសំស្រ្កឹត ក្បួនច្បាប់ទូទៅ
- Many assimilations of one consonant to a neighboring consonant occurred in the development of Pali, producing a large number of geminate double consonants. Since aspiration of a geminate consonant is only phonetically detectable on the last consonant of a cluster, geminate kh, gh, ch, jh, ṭh, ḍh, th, dh, ph and bh appear as kkh, ggh, cch, jjh, ṭṭh, ḍḍh, tth, ddh, pph and bbh, not as khkh, ghgh etc.
- When assimilation would produce a geminate consonant or a sequence of unaspirated stop+aspirated stop at the beginning of a word, the initial geminate is simplified to a single consonant.
- When assimilation would produce a sequence of three consonants in the middle of a word, geminates are simplified until there are only two consonants in sequence.
- The sequence vv resulting from assimilation changes to bb
8.4. បាលី និងសំស្រ្កឹត Total assimilation
Total assimilation, where one sound becomes identical to a neighboring sound, is of two types: progressive, where the assimilated sound becomes identical to the following sound; and regressive, where it becomes identical to the preceding sound.
8.5. បាលី និងសំស្រ្កឹត Progressive assimilations
- Internal visarga assimilates to a following voiceless stop or sibilant
- In a sequence of two dissimilar Sanskrit stops, the first stop assimilates to the second stop
- In a sequence of two dissimilar nasals, the first nasal assimilates to the second nasal
- j assimilates to a following ñ i.e., jñ becomes ññ
- The Sanskrit liquid consonants r and l assimilate to a following stop, nasal, sibilant, or v
- r assimilates to a following l
- d sometimes assimilates to a following v, producing vv → bb
- t and d may assimilate to a following s or y when a morpheme boundary intervenes
8.6. បាលី និងសំស្រ្កឹត Regressive assimilations
- Nasals sometimes assimilate to a preceding stop in other cases epenthesis occurs; see below
- m assimilates to an initial sibilant
- Nasals assimilate to a preceding stop+sibilant cluster, which then develops in the same way as such clusters without following nasals see Partial assimilations below
- The Sanskrit liquid consonants r and l assimilate to a preceding stop, nasal, sibilant, or v
- y assimilates to preceding non-dental/retroflex stops or nasals
- y assimilates to preceding non-initial v, producing vv → bb
- y and v assimilate to any preceding sibilant, producing ss
- v sometimes assimilates to a preceding stop
8.7. បាលី និងសំស្រ្កឹត Partial and mutual assimilation
- Sanskrit sibilants before a stop assimilate to that stop, and if that stop is not already aspirated, it becomes aspirated; e.g. śc, st, ṣṭ and sp become cch, tth, ṭṭh and pph
- In sibilant-stop-liquid sequences, the liquid is assimilated to the preceding consonant, and the cluster behaves like sibilant-stop sequences; e.g. str and ṣṭr become tth and ṭṭh
- t and p become c before s, and the sibilant assimilates to the preceding sound as an aspirate i.e., the sequences ts and ps become cch
- A sibilant assimilates to a preceding k as an aspirate i.e., the sequence kṣ becomes kkh
- Any dental or retroflex stop or nasal followed by y converts to the corresponding palatal sound, and the y assimilates to this new consonant, i.e. ty, thy, dy, dhy, ny become cc, cch, jj, jjh, ññ ; likewise ṇy becomes ññ. Nasals preceding a stop that becomes palatal share this change.
- The sequence mr becomes mb, via the epenthesis of a stop between the nasal and liquid, followed by assimilation of the liquid to the stop and subsequent simplification of the resulting geminate.
8.8. បាលី និងសំស្រ្កឹត Epenthesis
An epenthetic vowel is sometimes inserted between certain consonant-sequences. As with ṛ, the vowel may be a, i, or u, depending on the influence of a neighboring consonant or of the vowel in the following syllable. i is often found near i, y, or palatal consonants; u is found near u, v, or labial consonants.
- Sequences of stop + nasal are sometimes separated by a or u
- The sequence sn may become sin initially
- i may be inserted between a consonant and l
- An epenthetic vowel may be inserted between an initial sibilant and r
- The sequence ry generally becomes riy i influenced by following y, but is still treated as a two-consonant sequence for the purposes of vowel-shortening
- a or i is inserted between r and h
- There is sporadic epenthesis between other consonant sequences
8.9. បាលី និងសំស្រ្កឹត Other changes
- Any Sanskrit sibilant before a nasal becomes a sequence of nasal followed by h, i.e. ṣṇ, sn and sm become ṇh, nh, and mh
- The sequence śn becomes ñh, due to assimilation of the n to the preceding palatal sibilant
- The sequences hy and hv undergo metathesis
- h undergoes metathesis with a following nasal
- y is geminated between e and a vowel
- Voiced aspirates such as bh and gh on rare occasions become h
- Dental and retroflex sounds sporadically change into one another
8.10. បាលី និងសំស្រ្កឹត Exceptions
There are several notable exceptions to the rules above; many of them are common Prakrit words rather than borrowings from Sanskrit.
- puruṣa → purisa not purusa
- guru → garu adj. beside guru n)
- vṛkṣa → rukṣa → rukkha not vakkha
- ārya → ayya beside ariya
9.1. សំណេរបាលី អក្ខរក្រមបាលី
ស្តេច អសោក Ashoka បានសាងសង់សរសរស្តំ pillar មួយចំនួន ព្រមទាំងបានបញ្ញត្ត ហាម សរសេរភាសាប្រាក្រឹតតិចបំផុត ៣ តំបន់ ជាអក្សរព្រាហ្មណ៍, ដែលភាសាទាំងនោះស្រដៀងនឹងភាសាបាលី។ តាមការស្រាវជ្រាវ ផ្អែកលើការសាកសួរ និង សង្កេត, គេជឿថា ព្រះត្រៃបិដកបាលី ត្រូវបានសរសេរជាភាសាសីហឡ Sinhala, Sinhalese មុនគេ ។ នៅក្នុងគម្ពីរមហាវង្ស Mahavamsa កាលប្បវត្តិនៃប្រទេសស្រីលង្កា, កំឡុងពេលមានទុរ្ភិក្ស កង្វះអាហារ ក្នុងប្រទេស, ព្រះសង្ឃជាសាវ័កនៃព្រះពុទ្ធ បានចារព្រះត្រៃបិដក ក្នុងកំឡុងរាជ នៃស្តេច ដ្តគាមនី អភយៈ Vattagamani Abhaya ក្នុងពុទ្ធសករាជ ៤៤៤ ១០០ ឆ្នាំ មុនគ្រិស្តសករាជ ។ ការសរសេរបាលី ត្រូវបានថែរក្សាក្នុងប្រព័ន្ធអក្សរសកល តែវាត្រូវបានបញ្ជាក់ពីតម្លៃជាក់ស្តែងគួរឲ្យភ្ញាក់ផ្អើលនៃអក្សរដទៃ ៗ ។
ប្រទេសកាន់តាមពុទ្ធសាសនានិកាយថេរវាទនីមួយៗ បានកត់ត្រាសំនៀងអត្ថបទបាលីក្នុងព្រះត្រ័យបិដកដោយប្រើអក្សរនៃជាតិរបស់ខ្លួន ដែលធ្វើឲ្យមានសំនឿងអាន ខុសប្លែកពីគ្នាខ្លះៗ ។ នៅប្រទេសកម្ពុជា អត្ថបទបាលីត្រូវបានសរសេរជាអក្សរខ្មែរ, ប្រទេសស្រីលង្កា ប្រើអក្សរសីហឡ, នៅប្រទេសភូមា មីយ៉ាន់ម៉ា ប្រើអក្សរមន, នៅប្រទេសថៃ ប្រើអក្សរថៃឆ្នាំ ១៨៩៣, នៅប្រទេសឡាវ ប្រើអក្សរឡាវ, នៅប្រទេសឥណ្ឌា ប្រើទេវនាគរីDevanāgarī។
ចាប់តាំងពីសតវត្យទី ១៩, ភាសាបាលីត្រូវបានសរសេរជាអក្សរឡាតាំង Latin ទុកជាគោលសម្រាប់ផ្ទៀងផ្ទាត់ និង សម្រាប់អ្នកសិក្សាស្រាវជ្រាវ ទូទៅ ។ An alternate scheme devised by Frans Velthuis allows for typing without diacritics using plain ASCII methods, but is arguably less readable than the standard Rhys Davids system, which uses diacritical marks.
អក្ខរៈសម្រាប់ប្រើក្នុងភាសាបាលីមាន៤១តួ គឺ សរៈស្រៈ ៨ តួ និង ព្យញ្ជនៈ ៣៣ តួ
- ជាអក្សរឡាតំាង a-ā-i-ī-u-ū-e-o-ṃ-k-kh-g-gh-ṅ-c-ch-j-jh-ñ-ṭ-ṭh-ḍ-ḍh-ṇ-t-th-d-dh-n-p-ph-b-bh-m-y-r-l-ḷ-v-s-h
9.2. សំណេរបាលី អក្សរសព្ទបាលីលើគណិតូបករណ៍ កំណត់សូរ
There are several fonts to use for Pali transliteration. However, older ASCII fonts such as Leedsbit PaliTranslit, Times_Norman, Times_CSX+, Skt Times, Vri RomanPali CN/CB etc., are not recommendable since they are not compatible with one another and technically out of date. On the contrary, fonts based on the Unicode standard are recommended because Unicode seems to be the future for all fonts and also because they are easily portable to one another.
However, not all Unicode fonts contain the necessary characters. To properly display all the diacritic marks used for romanized Pali for that matter, Sanskrit, a Unicode font must contain the following character ranges:
- Basic Latin: U+0000 – U+007F
- Latin Extended-B: U+0180 – U+024F
- Latin-1 Supplement: U+0080 – U+00FF
- Latin Extended Additional: U+1E00 – U+1EFF
- Latin Extended-A: U+0100 – U+017F
Some Unicode fonts freely available for typesetting Romanized Pali are as follows:
- Tinos is a serif font. Regular, italic, bold and bold italic styles.
- Googles Chrome OS has 3 font families which can be downloaded from Google Font Directory. Even better, they can be used as embedded in websites to show the Pali text that users can view without having the fonts on their machines.
- Cousine is a monospaced font. Regular, italic, bold and bold italic styles.
- Arimo is a sans-serif font. Regular, italic, bold and bold italic styles.
- SIL: International provides Charis SIL and Charis SIL Compact, Doulos SIL, Gentium, Gentium Basic, Gentium Book Basic fonts. Of them, Charis SIL, Gentium Basic and Gentium Book Basic have all 4 styles ; so can provide publication quality typesetting.
- The TeX Gyre Adventor family of sans serif fonts is based on the URW Gothic L family. The original font, ITC Avant Garde Gothic, was designed by Herb Lubalin and Tom Carnase in 1970.
- The TeX Gyre Heros family of sans serif fonts is based on the URW Nimbus Sans L family. The original font, Helvetica, was designed in 1957 by Max Miedinger.
- Junicode short for Junius-Unicode is a Unicode font for medievalists, but it provides all diacritics for typing Pali. It has 4 styles and some Opentype features such as Old Style for numerals.
- Libertine Openfont Project provides the Linux Libertine font 4 serif styles and many Opentype features and Linux Biolinum 4 sans-serif styles at the Sourceforge.
- The TeX Gyre Schola family of serif fonts is based on the URW Century Schoolbook L family. The original font, Century Schoolbook, was designed by Morris Fuller Benton in 1919.
- The TeX Gyre Bonum family of serif fonts is based on the URW Bookman L family. The original font, Bookman or Bookman Old Style, was designed by Alexander Phemister in 1860.
- The TeX Gyre Termes family of serif fonts is based on the Nimbus Roman No9 L family. The original font, Times Roman, was designed by Stanley Morison together with Starling Burgess and Victor Lardent.
- GUST Polish TeX User Group provides Latin Modern and TeX Gyre fonts. Each font has 4 styles, with the former finding most acceptance among the LaTeX users while the latter is a relatively new family. Of the latter, each typeface in the following families has nearly 1250 glyphs and is available in PostScript, TeX and OpenType formats.
- The TeX Gyre Chorus is a font based on the URW Chancery L Medium Italic font. The original, ITC Zapf Chancery, was designed in 1979 by Hermann Zapf.
- The TeX Gyre Pagella family of serif fonts is based on the URW Palladio L family. The original font, Palatino, was designed by Hermann Zapf in the 1940s.
- The Tibetan & Himalayan Digital Library recommends Times Ext Roman, and provides links to several Unicode diacritic Windows and Mac fonts usable for typing Pali together with ratings and installation instructions. It also provides macros for typing diacritics in OpenOffice and MS Office.
- The TeX Gyre Cursor family of monospace serif fonts is based on the URW Nimbus Mono L family. The original font, Courier, was designed by Howard G. Bud Kettler in 1955.
- Thryomanes includes all the Roman-alphabet characters available in Unicode along with a subset of the most commonly used Greek and Cyrillic characters, and is available in normal, italic, bold, and bold italic.
- The Pali Text Society recommends VU-Times and Gandhari Unicode for Windows and Linux Computers.
- IndUni-CMono is Courier-lookalike but monospaced;
- IndUni-C is Courier-lookalike;
- IndUni-N is New Century Schoolbook-lookalike;
- IndUni-T is Times-lookalike;
- IndUni-P is Palatino-lookalike;
- IndUni-H is Helvetica-lookalike;
- John Smith provides IndUni Opentype fonts, based upon URW++ fonts. Of them
- An English Buddhist monk titled Bhikkhu Pesala provides some Pali fonts he has designed himself. Of them
- Talapanna and Talapatta are clones of Goudy Bertham, with decorative gothic capitals and extra ligatures in the Private Use Area. These two are different only in decorative gothic capitals in the Private Use Area. Regular and bold styles.
- He also provides some Pali keyboards for Windows XP.
- Odana is a calligraphic brush font suitable for headlines, titles, or short texts where a less formal appearance is wanted. Regular style only.
- Akkhara is a derivative of Gentium with low profile accents, reduced line-spacing and high accents prevented from getting clipped. Maths symbols are the same width as figures. The additional arrows, symbols, and dingbats are designed to match the Caps height.Regular & Italic styles.
- Verajja is derived from Bitstream Vera. Regular, italic, bold and bold italic styles.
- Pali is a clone of Hermann Zapfs Palatino. Regular, italic, bold and bold italic styles.
- Guru is another font family for body text with OpenType features. Regular, italic, bold and bold italic styles.
- Hattha is a hand-writing font. Regular, italic, and bold styles.
- Veluvana is another brush calligraphic font but basic Greek glyphs are taken from Guru. Regular style only.
- Lekhana is a Zapf Chancery clone, a flowing script that can be used for correspondence or body text. Regular, italic, bold and bold italic styles.
- Garava was designed for body text with a generous x-height and economical copyfit. It includes Small Caps, Bold Small Caps, and Heavy styles besides the usual four styles.
- VerajjaPDA is a cut-down version of Verajja without symbols. For use on PDA devices. Regular, italic, bold and bold italic styles.
- Mandala is designed for display text or headings. Regular, italic, bold and bold italic styles.
- Cankama is a Gothic, Black Letter script. Regular style only.
- Kabala is a distinctive Sans Serif typeface designed for display text or headings. Regular, italic, bold and bold italic styles.
- The font section of Alanwoods Unicode Resources have links to several general purpose fonts that can be used for Pali typing if they cover the character ranges above.
Some of the latest fonts coming with Windows 7 can also be used to type transliterated Pali: Arial, Calibri, Cambria, Courier New, Microsoft Sans Serif, Segoe UI, Segoe UI Light, Segoe UI Semibold, Tahoma, and Times New Roman. And some of them have 4 styles each hence usable in professional typesetting: Arial, Calibri and Segoe UI are sans-serif fonts, Cambria and Times New Roman are serif fonts and Courier New is a monospace font.
9.3. សំណេរបាលី បាលីជា ASCII
The Velthuis scheme was originally developed in 1991 by Frans Velthuis for use with his "devnag" Devanāgarī font, designed for the TeX typesetting system. This system of representing Pali diacritical marks has been used in some websites and discussion lists. However, as the Web itself and email software slowly evolve towards the Unicode encoding standard, this system has become almost not necessary and obsolete.
- See entries for "Pali" written by K. R. Norman of the Pali Text Society and "India--Buddhism" in The Concise Encyclopedia of Language and Religion, Sawyer ed. ISBN 0-08-043167-4
- de Silva, Lily 1994 Pali Primer first edition ed. Vipassana Research Institute Publications ISBN 817414014X CS1 maint: Extra text link
- Müller, Edward 1884.1995 Simplified Grammar of the Pali Language Asian Educational Services ISBN 8120611039
- Warder, A.K. 1991 Introduction to Pali third edition ed. Pali Text Society ISBN 0860131971 CS1 maint: Extra text link
- American National Standards Institute. 1979. American National Standard system for the romanization of Lao, Khmer, and Pali. New York: The Institute.
- Oberlies, T., & Pischel, R. 2001. Pāli: a grammar of the language of the Theravāda Tipiṭaka. Indian philology and South Asian studies, v. 3. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-016763-8
- Hazra, K. L. 1994. Pāli language and literature: a systematic survey and historical study. Emerging perceptions in Buddhist studies, no. 4-5. New Delhi: D.K. Printworld. ISBN 81-246-0004-X
- Müller, E. 2003. The Pali language: a simplified grammar. Trubners collection of simplified grammars. London: Trubner. ISBN 1-84453-001-9
- Collins, Steven 2006. A Pali Grammar for Students. Silkworm Press.
- Russell Webb ed. An Analysis of the Pali Canon, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy; 1975, 1991 see
- Soothill, W. E., & Hodous, L. 1937. A dictionary of Chinese Buddhist terms: with Sanskrit and English equivalents and a Sanskrit-Pali index. London: K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.
- Gupta, K. M. 2006. Linguistic approach to meaning in Pali. New Delhi: Sundeep Prakashan. ISBN 81-7574-170-8
- Pali at Ethnologue
- Buddhist India by T.W. Rhys Davids, chapter IX, Language and Literature
- Glenn Wallis, Buddhavacana: A Pali Reader.
- Pali Text Society, London. The Pali Text Societys Pali-English dictionary. Chipstead, 1921-1925.
- Pali Text Society
- Comprehensive Reference Table of Pali Literature